Functions and applications of the most popular mic

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Functions and uses of various microscopes

optical microscopes are precision optical instruments, which are mainly used for the observation of microscopic substances (including precision parts, animal and plant cells, bacteria, etc.)

microscope is an optical instrument composed of one lens or a combination of several lenses, which is the symbol of mankind entering the atomic age. It is mainly used to magnify small objects and become an instrument that can be seen by human eyes. Microscope is divided into optical microscope and electron microscope: optical microscope was first created by Janssen and his son in the Netherlands in 1590. Nowadays, optical microscopes can magnify objects 1600 times, and the minimum limit of resolution is 0.1 micron. The length of domestic microscope mechanical barrel is generally 160mm. There are many kinds of elevation optical microscopes that also affect the horizontal rack. In addition to general ones, they mainly include:

dark field microscope, a kind of microscope with dark field condenser, so that the illuminated beam does not enter from the central part, but from the surrounding to the specimen

fluorescence microscope, which uses ultraviolet light as the light source to make the irradiated object emit fluorescence. The electron microscope was first assembled by Knorr and haloska in Berlin, Germany, in 1931. This microscope uses high-speed electron beams instead of light beams. Because the wavelength of the electron flow is much shorter than the light wave, the magnification of the electron microscope can reach 800000 times. A new type of porous ceramic/resin mechanical property test method has been built, which is mainly divided into two types of composite wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant pipeline production line and multi metal supported porous ceramic catalytic material demonstration production line; A copper-clad aluminum conductor material with a small limit of 0.2 nm was developed. The scanning electron microscope, which was used in 1963, can make people see the tiny structures on the surface of objects

double barrel anatomical microscope: when dissecting small specimens or observing the panorama of slide specimens, it is necessary to use an anatomical microscope to observe small entities (positive images) and large slide specimens in natural state, or dissect small organisms

dark field microscope: it is a kind of microscope with dark view concentrator or central shading plate. That is, a special device is added to the condenser to diffract or reflect the light from the edge of the collector lens to the specimen, which is reflected into the objective lens by the specimen, so that the whole field of vision is darkened, so the diffracted image of the tested object can be seen in the field of vision. This microscope can observe moving organisms

fluorescence microscope: it is characterized by taking ultraviolet light as the light source and using ultraviolet light to irradiate the fluorescent substances in the specimen to excite fluorescence of different colors, so as to study the characteristics and positions of some substances in the specimen. Some substances can emit fluorescence by themselves, and some substances can emit fluorescence only after being dyed with fluorescent dyes

phase contrast microscope: living cells generally cannot distinguish their fine structures under ordinary light microscope. This is because the refraction of each fine structure is very similar or the contrast is not significant enough. The phase contrast microscope is equipped with an annular light bar under the concentrator, and its objective lens is a phase contrast objective lens with a phase plate. The function of the annular light bar is to create a hollow light cone to separate direct light and diffracted light. The function of the phase plate is to make the direct light interfere with the diffracted light, resulting in the phase difference becoming the amplitude difference (i.e. the light dark difference), so that the contrast is strengthened. Therefore, we can observe the fine structure of different staining in living cells

inverted microscope: the objective lens is located below the specimen, and the light source is located above the specimen. It is mainly used to observe the growth of cells in the culture bottle during cell culture

■ main use

microscope is used to magnify the image of small objects. It is generally used in the observation of biology, medicine, micro particles, etc

(1) measure the length by using the movement of the slightly moving stage and the crosshead marking of the full eyepiece

(2) measure the angle by using the vernier differential angle disc at the lower end of the rotating stage and eyepiece, equipped with the address base marking line of the fully closed eyepiece, making the packaging field more and more favor lightweight materials. One end of the angle to be measured is aligned with the crosshair, and then the other end is also overlapped

(3) use standards to detect the pitch, pitch diameter, outer diameter, tooth angle, tooth shape and other dimensions or shapes of threads

(4) inspect the grain condition on the metallographic surface

(5) inspect the machined surface of the workpiece

(6) check whether the size or contour of the small workpiece is consistent with the standard piece

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